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Funeral services for the immediate […] There were three Mrs Carrs (not one, as the Times obituary claimed), and each marriage ended in hideous circumstances: one wife was left when she already had terminal cancer, another abandoned, when Carr was almost ninety, because she was ‘depressing’. Nevertheless, I cannot agree with some of his judgments. Carr disliked this. Towards the end of his life, Carr was interviewed by the New Left Review.1 He was prepared, he said, to recognise the achievements of the Russian Revolution despite all the millions of casualties. Carr’s other outstanding book of this period is The Romantic Exiles (1933). International Relations between the World Wars, first published in 1937 (under a different title), is a very useful little work if you want to look up, say, the details of Reparations. London Review of Books For Carr very greatly wanted to be loved, and he much preferred women’s company to men’s, although he treated his women so badly. Stalin receives his due, and it mattered to Carr to present Stalin as an administrative solver of problems, the machine coming out of the God. Yet Volume II of The Bolshevik Revolution remains the single best study of economic policy and its consequences in the first half-decade of Soviet power and has yet to be displaced as a source for this under-studied subject. Carr was certainly aware of the complications of the problem, but he ran away from them. 28 Little Russell Street Carr’s serious critics reprove him for oversimplification, but they all praise the clarity of his exposition. Carr was the obvious candidate for the Chair, when it fell vacant, but a palace coup did him out of it: Agnes Headlam-Morley was appointed, perhaps because her father had been official historian of Versailles, perhaps on the strength of her skill in assembling documents. SIR: E.H. Carr will survive his obituarists, if only because his History of Soviet Russia constitutes, with Joseph Needham’s Science and Civilisation in China, the most remarkable effort of single-handed historical scholarship undertaken in Britain within living memory. There are so many that I have always felt that what it lacks is a map! 1939 - 2018. Tribute Wall Obituary & Events. Stone says there is no discussion of politics in the first volume of Socialism in One Country, which leaves the reader no means of understanding how Stalin could defeat the various oppositions: yet half of Volume II (Chapters 11-19 of the overall work, some 250 pages) is devoted to exactly this question, stressing amongst other things precisely the factor (local struggles for control of the party apparatus) which Stone taxes Carr with ignoring. As a reviewer, Carr was sometimes just and never fair. The only thing to do was to go to the opera with local big-wigs and Russian émigrés which gave him, he said, a lasting hatred of opera. His Celebration of Life Service will be held Saturday, August 1, 2020 at Redeeming Faith Church of God in Christ, 2, p.451). SIR: Whatever may be said of E.H. Carr as a historian of Soviet Russia (and on this subject I leave it to the specialists to judge), I wish it to go on record that in this department, which he headed from 1936 to 1947, and no less, I believe, in the field of International Relations studies generally, his is an honoured name. Geoff Eley, University of MichiganWilliam Rosenberg, University of MichiganMoshe Lewin, University of PennsylvaniaRonald Suny, University of Michigan. He was born July 15, 1945 in Grand Haven. Obituary. Here Stone is mainly criticising the volumes on which Carr and I collaborated, so I will comment in a little more detail. By E H. . East of the river, it was a quite different story. Now that Stalin, not Germany, had the power, Carr was all for handing over Eastern Europe, for abandoning any obligation to Poland, a country of ‘losers’ which he despised. vii + 276. Second, how much it misses out. The unjust claim that Carr was mesmerised by the ‘power of Stalin’ and so resolved to write the history of ‘this colossus’. She was born September 29, 1952 at Nellis, Funeral Home Services for James are being provided by Holt-Woodbury Funeral Home. But it would hardly improve our understanding to follow Stone’s naive approach of seizing on one of his ‘three ways of looking at’ the problem as the primary explanation. What lay between them was a career partly in academic life, and partly on the Times. The basis of my own accusations as to his ignorance of the Ukraine lay in Socialism in One Country, I, 214, where we hear that in the Ukraine the commune ‘was obsolescent, since the Stolypin reform had made far greater progress here than elsewhere’. (This is described as ‘gigantomania’ by the ungigantic.) Given the imposing dimensions of the History as it eventually took shape (stigmatised by Stone as ‘gigantomania’), it hardly seems reasonable to demand a detailed treatment of the period before 1917. For a professional historian Stone is amazingly ready to write of Carr from hearsay: his phrase ‘he was also, it is said, very mean’ is echoed throughout the article by ‘it would appear’, ‘it is said’, ‘apparently’, ‘perhaps’, ‘he seems’ and, a third time, ‘it is said’. It is said that they farmed him out to live with an aunt, one of these sad Edwardian spinster-dependents. It began with a three-volume study of The Bolshevik Revolution (1950-1953), continued with The Interregnum (1954), and proceeded to Socialism in One Country (three volumes), Foundations of a Planned Economy (three volumes), and, this year, The Twilight of the Comintern. 6. letters@lrb.co.uk It is much easier to argue that the heart of the peasant problem was the kind of family and communal arrangement described in Shanin’s Awkward Class. The disposition of new industry and building became a matter for private empire-building, over which Stalin presided, and it is far from clear that economic factors had the kind of priority Carr gave them. The German Chancellor, Bethmann Hollweg, said early in the July Crisis of 1914 that ‘the future belongs to Russia; she grows and grows, and weighs upon us like a nightmare.’ The historian R. Ropponen has managed to write a large book, Die Kraft Russlands (1968), describing how widespread was the conviction, throughout Europe, that Russia would be a super-power, and most historians nowadays would probably agree that Germany launched the July Crisis to prevent Russia from growing stronger. There was no recurrence of cancer. There is no doubt that he regarded the industrial achievements of the Five Year Plans as tremendous. Curiously enough, his money survived these disasters. Obituary: E.H. Carr Tell it as it is (December 1982) From Socialist Review, December 1982/January 1983: 11, p. 12 Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’Callaghan for the Marxists’ Internet Archive. These included ''International Relations since the Peace Treaties in 1937'' and ''The Twenty Years Crisis,'' which appeared just after the outbreak of World War II. Carr was what the trade calls “an agent of influence,” promoting the party line either of his own free will or perhaps prompted by the Soviet officials with whom he was in touch in London and Moscow and elsewhere. It does, however, begin well, perhaps even brilliantly. London, WC1A 2HN The charge of gigantomania is obvious, and deserved. Carr ranged over the whole field of international relations, supporting what he said with knowledge of past and present. I propose to bring to your notice only two of them. In general, the volumes of Carr’s History on the Comintern and on foreign policy strike me as the best, though they are often long-winded. Thomas Leigh Carr, 75, of Shelby, passed away Tuesday, December 1, 2020, at Spectrum Health Butterworth Campus in Grand Rapids. SIR: My half-brother and I have both read the review of the works of our father, the late E.H. Carr, by Norman Stone in this week’s edition of your journal (LRB, 10 January). If this is true, it means that most Bolsheviks misunderstood agriculture a terrible way. E.H CARR Edward Hallett Carr's contribution to the study of Soviet history is widely regarded as highly distinguished. He used it to write extensively on international affairs; during the war, he combined it with other occupations, first back at Whitehall, and then as assistant editor of the Times, of which he might have become editor if Barrington-Ward had had his way. In places, it read like a Marxist 1066 and All That. The historian Edward Hallett Carr died on 3 November 1982, at the age of 90. Norman Stone writes: I am sorry that my version of Carr’s first divorce was inaccurate and glad that the correction has been made. John le Carré, who has died aged 89, was one of the most successful post-war English novelists, and perhaps the finest thriller writer of the 20th century. There are many other errors of detail in Stone’s article. E. H. Carr died in 1982 and in his obituary The Times wrote, 'His writings were for the most part as incisive as his manner. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. The third volume concerns foreign policy, and is very good: I have never seen a better account of Brest-Litovsk, although what it is doing in the third volume of a history of the Revolution is difficult to discern. His specific references to the History are misleading and slipshod. Online tributes may be made at www.RobertsFuneralHome.com. Insofar as my function differed from Carr’s, it had entirely the opposite effect. Clearly, to him, the Bolsheviks had taken a howling desert of illiteracy, ‘the Russia of ikons and cockroaches’, as Trotsky called it, and turned it into a sort of Welwyn Garden City. In his rage against Carr, Stone frequently bashes the wrong nail on the head. That not until ‘Stalin began to win battles’ did Carr argue ‘for recognition of the rule that the Soviets would have after the War’. The Bolsheviks could well be said to have brought off a miracle. Much of this we don’t need to take seriously, like the references to style and long paragraphs or to Richard Pipes’s lack of respect (it is said) for the quality of Carr’s scholarship. Patricia Carr's passing at the age of 88 on Wednesday, December 16, 2020 has been publicly announced by Farmville Funeral Home in Farmville, NC .Legacy invites you to offer condolences and share memor Our account goes something like this. that a class of capitalist farmers was emerging with demands for profit and labour that could not be squared with the Soviet order. Share a memory. It is not surprising that a study of a country being transformed under the direction of a one-party state should have a good deal to say about the nature and role of the ruling party. When Mr Stone pauses in his invective and tries to discuss matters more seriously, his own approach to historical problems is extraordinarily unsophisticated. The rest of their letter is about opinions, and we have simply to disagree. In the middle of writing his work, Carr came under the influence of Isaac Deutscher. Edward Hallett Carr, eminent historian of the Soviet Union and former assistant editor of The Times of London, died at his home in Cambridge. It explains why so much of the book concerns economics, a subject on which Carr was hardly expert. This totally ignores Carr’s long-standing fascination with the ambiguous distinctions between democratic and socialist revolutions, reflected in more than one of the essays in the much earlier book Studies in Revolution (1950), one of the works – like the life of Marx (1934) and several others – which Stone ignores. In the context of his three-volume Revolution, to devote three pages to the Stolypin reform, a central issue, is tantamount to ‘a few sentences’; his referring to the reform as occurring in 1908, not 1906, occurred in a quite separate place (a review of Shanin) and I did not feel he deserved the benefit of the doubt of a misprint. 169-70, 271-2). Turning now to Messrs Barber and Haslam, their contribution in the same issue contains an important correction in points 4 and 5. Find the obituary of Jean Frances Carr (1922 - 2010) from Sylvania, OH. He seems to have started out with a plan to chart the history of the Soviet Union as the translation of an Idea into practice: that may account for the difficult lay-out of the book. I, and refers to developments not at the end of the 1920s but only up to 1925!). It is so very easy to sink to this level of gossip-mongering malignancy, masquerading as intellectual toughmindedness, especially when the victim cannot respond. View ceremony time and location and leave condolences here. Ernestine worked at Stoufffer’s Restaurant for many years before transferring into her field of passion. John le Carré (David Cornwell) in 2017. I choose one example. And when we began our collaboration in 1958, I, an unknown research fellow aged 33, soon found that this famous historian twice my age welcomed and encouraged even my sharpest criticisms of his drafts, on matters small and large. He thought it was mad for this country to become involved in war with Germany over some Eastern European question, and he opposed the guarantee to Poland. He misused his influence to harm those he disagreed with (it is said). The Master of Balliol, the stern Calvinist Lindsay Keir, disliked everything about Carr – his affairs, his politics, his past, his present, even his dress (he used to pad about the college in sand-shoes). Among ourselves we may differ in our interpretations of Leninism, Stalinism and, indeed, the whole Soviet phenomenon, but we feel ‘tempted to exclaim that no more useless’ diatribe has ever masqueraded as a review. He seems to have been something of a coward. I summarise E.H. Carr's 1961 classic in historiography, What is History? £6.95. Read anywhere with the London Review of Books app, available now from the App Store for Apple devices, Google Play for Android devices and Amazon for your Kindle Fire. He continued to give generous advice as I completed it; introduced me to other specialists, to my great benefit; acted as a sympathetic examiner when the thesis was submitted (although he was very far from being in personal agreement with my approach or conclusions); recommended the work for publication by the Cambridge University Press, and me for a lectureship in his old department in Aberystwyth; continued to exchange arguments about many subjects (including Soviet-German relations in the Twenties, while I was working in this field); entertained me several times at the High Table at Trinity (what can one say of Stone’s ‘he was also, it is said, very mean’? 244 F & A M, and Scottish Rite. It is clear that Carr was out of his depth. Kenneth Carr, 75, of Greenville, TX, formerly of Magnolia and TEXarkana, passed away Wednesday, December 23, 2020 at the Colonial Lodge Assisted Living Center in … If Stone is qualified to criticise Carr’s interpretation of Russian history, it would have been more seemly for him to use your columns for doing so (and perhaps to devote a line or two to the work whose title appears at the head of his ‘review’, and of which he presumably received a copy) than for producing the spiteful and in many particulars mendacious piece you printed. and refers to it again with the correct date on several occasions later in the History: obviously ‘1908’ was a misprint. In the Second World War, the Red Army had taken on the bulk of Hitler’s war-effort, and had done most to defeat his armies in the field. Obviously, he did not keep abreast of scholarship in the pre-Revolutionary field. His attitude on the nationalities question can almost be described as one of hatred. In the First World War, Russia had been a weak ally, continually losing battles; and Tsarist Russia was generally regarded as inefficient, backward and tyrannical. By E. H. Carr. Share Obituary: John E. Carr. John H. Carr. In that way, he could cover his tracks against a possible charge of Stalinism (which I make, I think, largely indirectly). It is, of course, a matter of opinion; so is Carr’s style, which strikes me, and many others, as a grim and plodding degeneration from his good days in the Thirties. On a first reading, the book is a brilliant performance, for it treats the affair (and other later ones) with insight and irony. He was preceded in death by his wife, Frances Lucille Carnes Carr; and parents, … Mr. Carr entered journalism in 1941 as assistant editor of The Times. Mary Nell Melton Carr, age 85 died peacefully on November 14, 2020, in Montgomery County Texas. By the later 1920s, he had been sent to Riga as Secretary of the Legation, and he became very bored with it all. Peasant rebellions in Tambov receive much the same cursory treatment. At one level, his work is more straightforwardly about the stabilisation of a post-Revolutionary order (what Stone calls the making of Great Power from revolutionary origins). He defeated the ‘Right deviation’ in 1929 by well over three hundred votes to 13 in a joint meeting of the Central Committee and the Control Commission. The implication of this is, of course, that Russia ‘needed’ Stalin. The complex chain of events which led to the collapse of NEP was frequently a subject of discussion between Carr and myself, and will continue to be hotly debated among historians and economists. E. H. CARR AND THE HISTORY OF SOVIET RUSSIA The Russian Revolution from Lenin to Stalin igiy-ig2g. Even so, it is curious to see how reluctant he is to condemn, however crazy a particular policy might seem (for example, the goading of German Communists into active opposition to the Social Democrats – ‘Social Fascists’ – at a time when Hitler was at the gates). This site requires the use of Javascript to provide the best possible experience. What lay between the two was, of course, Stalin’s hectic ‘modernisation’ of the country, to which Isaac Deutscher, in his famous biography of Stalin, had devoted more than a few ecstatic pages. £20.00. In conversation, he never gave much away, and he disliked talking to anyone with whom basic principles had not been agreed. If they do not always have the impact that they did, it is because many of Carr’s ideas have won universal acceptance, and one needs to go back to the thought-world of the mid-Thirties fully to understand the magnitude of Carr’s achievement. In the end Stone is probably right in one of his general assessments: the work ‘is really to be seen as a study of how Great Power is made out of revolutionary origins’. His Dostoyevski (1931) is often claimed to be his best book, though I do not think that he himself liked it very much (he preferred his Bakunin). The problem is to interrelate them. The fate of the ‘victims of Yalta’ left him quite cold. Funeral Home Services for PYE are being provided by Whidden-McLean Funeral Home - Bartow. Carr’s view seems to me to have been quite a simple one: that events were tending in a particular direction (dictatorship within the party, industrial planning, collectivisation of agriculture), and that Stalin profited because he was a better politician. It was a wonderfully concise account of the life, and it combined psychological penetration with a capacity for irony: Ostrovsky, for instance, ‘was addicted to that particularly Russian form of sentiment which believes that the minor vices, such as drunkenness and dirt, ordinarily cohabit with the major virtues.’ The book is especially good in its treatment of the caesura in Dostoevsky’s life, the years 1863-5, which preceded marriage to Anna Grigorevna and the writing of Crime and Punishment. London, WC1A 2HNletters@lrb.co.uk Wells, for his father was the manager of a small factory which had been built up, from artisan beginnings, by his own father. He advocated ‘a compromise between the utopian conception of a common feeling of right and the realistic conception of a mechanical adjustment to a changed equilibrium of forces’: in other words, if a state has power, recognise the fact. Carr in fact described Stalin’s victory over his opponents as ‘the triumph not of reason but of organisation’, (Socialism in One Country, Vol. In 1955, Carr was rescued by his old college, Trinity, at Cambridge. Instead, it starts with a lengthy account of what one Bolshevik says to another in the decade before 1914, and never puts even that into any kind of context. He argues that there are ‘three ways of looking at’ the breakdown of NEP. She is survived by her loving husband, James M. Carr. He talks of ‘the oddly distorted amalgam of bourgeois and socialist revolutions’, and remarks that ‘what inspired, and constantly tarnished, the [industrial] achievement was the illusory proletarian revolution.’ His book is really to be seen as a study of how Great Power is made out of revolutionary origins: it was this, more than anything else, that interested him. In early 20th-century Progressivism, or his relationship with Isaac Deutscher s ‘ as... 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