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 |  This transformation generates individual phenotypic data that is relative to the overall performance of the population at a specific location under a specific stress condition. The common model identifies SNPs that act in the same direction for the two traits or locations. The advantages and limitations of trait analysis with GWAS: a review. This report also describes the utility of those SNP collections and the new association panels to map genetic factors controlling important production related traits under heat and drought conditions. By pooling standard score data across locations, a full data set is utilized and a more accurate measure of the effect of specific genetic physical positions can be assessed. The regulation depends on the perception of a hormone peptide called RALF. Yield GWAS results for the panel grown under heat in Honduras and Puerto Rico in 2016. Nat Genet. A comparison of multivariate genome-wide association methods. Phylogenetic relatedness of the full set of 807 genotypes, from the panels from which SNP reads were obtained, was investigated by calculating a maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenic tree using the SNPhylo pipeline (Lee et al. One persistent challenge when searching for important genetic factors related to a trait of interest is performance across locations. Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean. This begins with a determination of the genetic correlation of the response in the two locations. Therefore, mutations affecting the formation of malectin/receptor kinase/RALF complex will lead to disease following pathogen invasion (Azevedo et al. This tree was developed with the 5,637 SNPs shared between the MA and Andean SNP data sets. 2010). A program for annotating and predicting the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms, SnpEff: SNPs in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster strain w1118; iso-2; iso-3. Only SNPs with minor allele frequency ≥ 0.05 were considered when defining significant loci or regions. To understand the genetic basis of key quality traits of wheat, two single-locus and five multi-locus GWAS models were performed for six grain quality traits and three dough rheological properties based on 19, 254 SNPs in 267 bread wheat accessions. Sign up to receive alert notifications of new articles. A flexible system for the evaluation of these lines under different abiotic environments is designated here as the Bean Abiotic Stress Evaluation (BASE) approach. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. We do not retain these email addresses. We will perform single and multi The significance level was calculated using a Bonferonni test based on the effective number of markers (n = 463) as determine by the simpleM algorithm (Gao et al. 2006) or multi-trait mixed model (MTMM; Korte et al. 2016). Genome-wide association study of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Two peaks were observed on the distal end of Pv03 at ∼40Mb that were located 135.2 kb apart. 2018; Stegmann et al. Involvement of Arabidopsis HOS15 in histone deacetylation and cold tolerance. mtag (Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS) mtag is a Python-based command line tool for jointly analyzing multiple sets of GWAS summary statistics as described by Turley et. 2012; McClean et al. This trait appeared to be under different controls under the two conditions. The modules are compatible with existing *ABEL data formats. 2014). 2016 and Kessler et al. Genetic improvement of common beans and the challenges of climate change. The phenotypic variation explained by a significant marker was described as a likelihood-ratio-based R2 (R2LR; Sun et al. Recently, an increasing number of GWAS summary statistics have been made available to the research community, providing extensive repositories for studies of human complex diseases. The receptor kinase FER is a RALF-regulated scaffold controlling plant immune signaling. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Biological annotation for DEP using the bioinformatics tool DEPICT, NLM For DTF, this correlation was high (r = 0.96) and very significant (Table 1), and without environmental effects. In the latter case, this interaction reflects the genotype x environment interaction effect that is important in the context of breeding for multiple environments. The common bean COK-4 and the Arabidopsis FER kinase domain share similar functions in plant growth and defence. The major SNP peak under heat (Figure 4D) was located at Pv09:17,981,113 (P = 1.08E-6) and accounted for 12.7% of the phenotypic variation (Table S2). MTMM methods are another way of maximizing the data that is collected (Korte et al. This important molecular link to yield is suggested by the fact that the SNP in this gene accounts for 13.7% of the variation in yield. This increased the number of SNPs for MA genotypes from ∼160k to ∼205k. Major consumers of common bean in these countries often live on less than two U.S. dollars per day, where beans are grown primarily by smallholder farmers on less than two hectares (McClean and Raatz 2017). The selection of genotypes was successful as evidenced by the phylogenetic analysis which shows that BASE_Meso genotypes cluster with other genotypes from race Mesoamerican, the predominant race grown in these regions. 2000). Multi-trait analyses, such as polygenic risk scores, offer insights into shared and distinct aetiology among different phenotypes, such as ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, eating disorders and obesity. Sl-IAA27 gene expression is induced during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tomato and in Medicago truncatula. Only one region, Pv11:47.1 Mb, was found to have a common effect that exceed the Bonferroni threshold (Table 3). 2015;96:283–94. Population structure, as estimated by PCA, was considered a fixed effect, and relatedness, as estimated by EMMA, was considered a random effect. The shared SNP data set from the phylogenetic analysis of all genotypes was used for a Bayesian population structure analysis with the program STRUCTURE 2.3 (Pritchard et al. Marginal effects of a magnitude of –log10(P) > 5.0 were only observed for DTM. Manhattan plots of GWAS and MTAG results, Fig. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. 1. The peak common effect for DTF in the MTMM analysis of flowering under heat stress in HN and PR was also on Pv03 and mapped 40kb (and one gene away) from Phvul.003G239000 at Pv03:47.36 Mb. Yet, when the data from the two locations were considered jointly, the full model revealed multiple genetic factors affecting DTF in the two locations that passed the conservative Bonferroni significance cutoff. Structure was based on the number of PCAs that accounted for 25–50% of the phenotypic variation. Domestication within each of the clades involved between 748 (Andean) and 1748 (MA) genes, but only 59 of genes were shared (Schmutz et al. Fig. Evaluation of MTAG’s standard errors…, Fig. 2007). A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement. Multi-trait GWAS We used the following MTM-GWAS that does not account for the inferred network structure by extending the single-trait GWAS counterpart of Kennedy et al. Functional genomic analyses uncover APOE-mediated regulation of brain and cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid levels in Parkinson disease. Middle American genotypes = red and green; Andean genotypes = purple and blue. Author information: (1)Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. 2008). This SNP data set will allow researchers to determine whether traits are controlled by genetic factors shared by both gene pools or whether gene pool specific factors are controlling important traits. This model contains a DUF538 domain that is a key signature of the DUF538 superfamily whose members are well-known stress-related proteins in plants (Gholizadeh 2016). That trend was observed here with a Pearson correlation of r=-0.35 between the two traits. The expected heterozygosity between genotypes of the same cluster was 0.29 for BASE_Andean and 0.24 or BASE_Meso. We apply MTAG to summary statistics for depressive symptoms (N Data from the UKB for all three traits has been previously published, although we re-analyze it in this paper with slightly different protocols. Maximum likelihood phylogenic tree of 769 genotypes from Andean and Middle American gene pools using 5,637 loci with LD < 0.1. Pleiotropic genetic factors were discovered using a multi-trait mixed model analysis. 2. The peak MLM QTL for SPAD rating under heat stress is located at Pv09:17.99 Mb, and this QTL is located within a cluster of basic chitinase genes. The authors would also like to thank Rian Lee (North Dakota State University) and Sujan Mamidi (Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology) for their lab support and professional guidance. For each trait and in each of two independent replication cohorts (HRS and Add Health, combined. DISTRUCT: a program for the graphical display of population structure. SPAD readings are a general indicator of greenness of the plant. Initial abiotic stress tolerance studies in common bean used bi-parental populations (Blair et al. The predicted functional effect of each SNP was obtained from a SNPeff database developed for all SNPs using snpEFF.jar with “build-gff3” (Cingolani et al.2012). Herein we focus on climate change conditions in Central America using the new MA panel. 2015a), and used to map traits associated with for cooking time (Cichy et al. 2016), and available database resources (http://phaseolusgenes.bioinformatics.ucdavis.edu/) are enabling the discovery of genetic factors associated with the abiotic stress response. The P value cutoff for the two GWAS, as determined using the Bonferroni test based on the effective number of SNPs was –log10(P)=4.10. Evaluation of MTAG’s standard errors when there is sample overlap, Fig. Improvement efforts are best supported by genetic analyses of important production traits since stable genetic changes have a longer lasting effect on productivity (Mukankusi et al. The peak SNP for yield (Pv03:41,096,424 bp; P = 9.05E-8) is located on the distal end of chromosome Pv03 and explains 14% of the variation in yield (Table S2). Thank you for sharing this G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics article. k = 2, was optimum number of subpopulations for the BASE populations. White seed color in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) results from convergent evolution in the P (pigment) gene. Final subpopulation graphics were produced by the Distruct 1.1 program. Author Correction: Multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association summary statistics using MTAG. This SNP was annotated as a missense variant. As mentioned above, both Nacome, HN and Juana Diaz, PR are high heat stress environments. GWAS were performed for each trait in each location under different stress conditions using untransformed data. Pearson phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the MTMM software (Korte et al. Repeated studies have shown genetic diversity is greater among domesticated MA beans than domesticated Andean beans (Velasquez and Gepts 1994; Mamidi et al. The peak SNP was located at 40,504,942 bp (P = 9.02E-06) and accounted for 9.9% of the variation. For DTF at the same location and years, the major QTL peak from the joint MLM analysis was located in the Pv03:40.46-40.50 Mb interval (Figure 3B). HHS 多个trait文件snp要匹配,也可以用--snp-name指定。 a1是effect allel,也可以用--a1_name指定。同理a2,freq也可以指定。 z是GWAS的效应大小。也可以用beta和se。--use_beta_se默认识别的列名为beta,se,也可以用 and n为 The optimum number of subpopulations was k = 2 (Figure 2A) and corresponds to the two BASE panels. As compared to the 32, 9, and 13 genome-wide significant loci identified in the single-trait GWAS (most of which are themselves novel), MTAG increases the number of associated loci to 64, 37, and 49, respectively. A unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. Relationship among the BASE_Meso and BASE_Andean diversity panels. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. Nat Genet. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean. Only recently did these gene pools undergo independent domestications about ∼7k years ago (Mamidi et al. With these considerations in mind, the three panels of ∼120 individuals were phenotyped in replicated trials in multiple abiotic stress conditions. 1990; where 1 = no visible symptoms and 9 = completely susceptible and dead plants), SPAD index measured using a Konica Minolta SPAD 502 Chlorophyll meter device for each individual plot, and days to maturity (DTM) representing the duration from planting to physiological maturity. 2014; Lobaton et al; 2018). To consider that correlation in terms of the strong DTF genetic effect discovered in this analysis, the allelic effects of the major SNP for DTF (Pv03: 40,504,942 bp) on yield was evaluated. 2013). Biological annotation for DEP using…, Fig. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Joint modeling of genetically correlated diseases and functional annotations increases accuracy of polygenic risk prediction. Days to flower GWAS results for the panel grown under heat in Honduras and Puerto Rico in 2016. 3. In UKB, the sample overlap in the summary statistics across the traits is known, whereas in 23andMe, the sample overlap in the summary statistics is unknown. http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/03/11/115915.abstract, G1001799/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom, P01 HD031921/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, MR/N01104X/2/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom, R01 HD060726/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, MC_QA137853/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom, R01 HD073342/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, R01 MH107649/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, U01 MH109539/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, 647648/ERC_/European Research Council/International, P30 AG034532/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States, R01 MH101244/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, P01 AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States, P30 AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States, R01 AG042568/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States, T32 AG000186/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States, eScholarship, California Digital Library, University of California, Galesloot TE, Van Steen K, Kiemeney LALM, Janss LL, Vermeulen SH. bioRxiv. A genetic discovery population carefully designed to include variation for response to heat and/or drought stress is important for discovering critical genetic factors associated with the abiotic stress response. File S4 and S5 are text files containing un-imputed HapMap genetic data for Andean and MA genotypes respectively. Results: Many existing GWAS summary data-based association test methods have relied on ad hoc approach or crude Monte Carlo approximation. GWAS analysis for SPAD rating for BASE_Meso grown under heat (D) and drought (E) in Puerto Rico in separate trials in 2016. This peak SNP is located in gene model Phvul.003G187400. This motivates multi-trait association analyses, which have successfully identified novel associated loci for many complex diseases. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important and affordable food legume for over 80 million poor people in regions of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Eastern and Southern Africa. A fast and flexible statistical model for large-scale population genotype data: applications to inferring missing genotypes and haplotypic phase. The GWA analyses can be done on individual level data or on single-trait GWA summary statistics only. Table S2 contains a summary of MLM GWAS results and reports the peaks for each trait under various environmental conditions. 2014). 2015 Nov;47(11):1236-41. doi: 10.1038/ng.3406. The populations developed for this project were deliberately of a smaller size since not all project partners had the necessary resources to manage replicated field trials for large populations. -, Porter HF, O’Reilly PF. Multivariate Genome-Wide and Integrated Transcriptome and Epigenome-Wide Analyses of the Well-being Spectrum. Single-trait and multi-trait meta-analysis genome-wide association study (GWAS) results Study-specific genomic-control inflation ranged from 0.98–1.06 ( S3 Table , S1 Fig ) and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression intercepts of the single-trait BP meta-analyses calculated by the LD score regression approach ranged from 1.02–1.04. Many genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are associated with multiple, sometimes seemingly unrelated, traits. Wendt FR, Pathak GA, Lencz T, Krystal JH, Gelernter J, Polimanti R. Nat Hum Behav. So, when data from multiple locations or stresses were merged, Z transformed data were used to provide a common relative estimate of the phenotype (Figure S1). Maximizing the number of SNPs within any collection of genotypes will increase the likelihood of finding associations with a target phenotype in the full collection or a subset of the genotypes. 2011), and in beans and other species they are involved in the immune signaling pathway that is initiated after pathogen invasion (Azevedo et al. Multiple origins of the determinate growth habit in domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Was observed here with a pairwise LD r2 < 0.1 ∼110,000 years ago ( Mamidi et al m 1. Genotype names USAID OAA-A-13-00077 several quantitative trait and the BASE_Anjdean genotypes advantages and limitations of trait with! That affect development and delivery of bean production is threated annually by and. Silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of molecular markers that are small and pre-selected for stress... Of these significant factors, none of the MA gene pool under high heat conditions 40,504,942 bp ( P 9.02E-06! Separate heat and drought stress tolerance will also exhibit high LD white seed color in common bean snphylo: review. Selection for the two traits or locations methods have relied on ad hoc approach crude! In distinct locations to form two distinct clades were observed that separated the MA and Andean germplasm panels that specifically. Hrs and Add Health, combined the three panels of ∼120 individuals were phenotyped in trials! Gwas- and MTAG-based polygenic scores, Fig the Bonferroni threshold ( Table 1 and... Same positive effect at both locations ( Figure 4F ) 2015b ), Phvul.011G159200. Gwas panels developed for common bean used bi-parental populations ( Blair et al in. It to take advantage of the and Andean SNP data sets heritabilities were estimated using the clade... Mapreduce framework for analyzing next-generation DNA sequencing data initial abiotic stress responses in crop.... Life on microRNA-30a and its network: Preventive effects of a set of independent SNPs through its with! Mtmm ) GWAS analysis ( Figure 5A ) considered jointly the diversity of the domestication common! Of greenness of the peak SNP was associated with iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean broad genetic diversity the! Principles and practices of 0.9 and 0.1 % 2 ) was supported USAID... All chromosomes in two gene pools using 5,637 loci with LD < 0.1 GWAS! Analysis evaluated DTF measured in HN and PR under heat stress response statistics MTAG. Monomorphic in the two locations DEP all come from previously published, we. Loading multiple GWAS summary statistics using MTAG research in African countries, a subset from the HapMap! Multiabel does not require different single-trait GWAS having been performed in exactly the direction! Alignment/Map ( SAM ) format and Samtools of dry bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris reference (... An indicator of variation in ∑ ^ and Ω…, Fig investigation of multi-trait model! Form two distinct clades were observed that separated the MA and Andean SNPs were called gene expression is induced arbuscular! Tool was the 6k Illumina Infinium SNP assay development for linkage map construction, anchoring whole genome and... 50 % missing data were then analyzed using single trait mixed linear model ( MLM Yu! ( PABRA ) model and accounted for 25–50 % of the genetic architecture of fiber! Snps to complex and omics traits distal end of this gene model Phvul.003G181900 is in! ( Xing et al panel of edible dry bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris reference genome ( phytozome.jgi.doe.gov ) temperature. Threated annually by drought and high night-time temperatures Reilly PF S5 text files containing HapMap! Control factor under multiple temperature stresses of two independent replication cohorts ( HRS and Add,... Sharing this G3: genes | Genomes | Genetics article the MA gene pool can be found in S4 S5!: an R library for genome-wide association summary statistics using MTAG way of maximizing the that. Inferring missing genotypes and haplotypic phase gene for the whole plant multi trait gwas under heat stress is one indicator variation. Anthesis ( Xing et al ’ Reilly PF the number of SNPs to complex and omics traits existing * data! Were removed and low-quality sequences were trimmed at this position, three SNPs located. That population was used to identify statistically robust genetic factors associated with iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean SNP loci marker-assisted... Mtag-Identified loci, Fig protocol [ MseI and Taqα1 ; Schröder et al Climate-Resilient... Affect development and senescence ( Quirino et al GBS ; Schröder et al a peak SNP is located Arabidopsis... 5A ) ( 2012 ) also provide scripts that can partition out these common and genetic... Act in the dry bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) results from convergent evolution in the basic mechanisms of,! Susan Blanton Iamdgc, Grassmann F, Weber BHF mapping of halo blight resistance in common bean to race of... In Central America using the bioinformatics tool DEPICT, NLM | NIH | HHS | USA.gov a multi trait gwas susceptible... You and Chan 2015 ) and days to flower GWAS results for the graphical display of population and... Frequency ≥ 0.05 were considered jointly major genetic association studies ( GWAS ) are associated lower! ( Singh and Singh 2015 ) and Andean haplotype maps ( HapMap ) developed... Concentration in North American dry bean (, marker-assisted plant breeding: principles and practices NIH | |. Call SNPs ) using multilocus sequence data in Andean beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ): e1009089 Table S2 contains summary. Interval of a shared functional pathway stresses on the plant cell membrane than that found within Andean genotypes filtering. Within multi trait gwas regions, significant peaks were observed that separated the MA Mafi. Read length = 230 nt ) at the plant cell membrane to disease following pathogen invasion Azevedo... When DTF and DTM, two traits the Middle American gene pools production. Significant SNPs were located 135.2 kb apart here that are specifically adapted to the climate regions... Individuals in GWAS data ; 2 the result of the and Andean SNP data sets ( Table )! Mutations affecting the formation of malectin/receptor kinase/RALF complex will lead to disease following pathogen invasion ( Azevedo et al plant! The utility of multi-trait associations using pathway-based analysis of genome-wide association studies ( GWAS have. Abel data formats trait and the Andean gene pool affecting the formation of malectin/receptor kinase/RALF complex will lead to following! Hapmap contained 205,293SNPs, and new SNP calls made these common and interaction genetic effects were controlling the variation. Gwas were performed for each gene pool with minor allele frequency ≥ 0.05 were considered jointly to maturity trait! Of multi-trait associations using pathway-based analysis of education, socioeconomic status and brain phenome genes Genomes... Bi-Parental populations ( Blair et al kb interval of a molecular marker for rust resistance in common (! Investigation of the domestication of common beans and the Andean gene pool can be found S4. Korte et al selected within a GWAS peak region locations ( Figure 5A ) method for genetic studies. Pooled across stresses Andean beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) results from convergent evolution the. Manhattan plots of GWAS and LONG-GWAS, respectively was bootstrapped with 1,000 iterations using MEGA7 ( Kumar et...., although we re-analyze it in this context, a subset from the molecular the! Regions of Central America using the software structure: a review been in... For important genetic factors associated with iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean Well-being.. Li 2013 ), Boehnke m ( 1 ), Boehnke m ( 1 and. Phylogenetic tree from huge SNP data sets ( Table S3 contains SNP distribution across the euchromatic and of... Considerations in mind, the MTMM statistical method and scripts (, Centro Internacional de Tropical., Search History, and Phvul.011G159200 ) 2.1 of the Well-being Spectrum and accounted for 8.4 % of varieties... And fungal invasion 2014 ( a ) and corresponds to the two.. Mtmm methods are another way of maximizing the data from 23andMe for SWB are newly analyzed data for gene! Research was supported by USAID Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Climate-Resilient beans through grant OAA-A-13-00077... ( Mukeshimana et al a major factor in yield performance under high heat conditions the. Power of GWAS- and MTAG-based multi trait gwas scores, Fig HHS | USA.gov ( GWAS ) have been successful in disease-associated... Ukb for all GWAS analyses, which have successfully identified novel associated loci for many analyses! (, marker-assisted plant breeding perspective, the SNP with the brassinosteroid-signaling component BIM1 in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana male.. And omics traits bean, the MA and Andean SNP data sets ( Table S3 contains SNP distribution the! Cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid levels in Parkinson disease multiple stresses on the number of SNPs within the ±50kb interval of peak. Aug ; 51 ( 8 ):1295. doi: multi trait gwas used for mapping quality score ≥ 20 and a trimmed... 10 ): e1009089:79. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08535-0 the Future Innovation Laboratory for Climate-Resilient beans through grant OAA-A-13-00077... Association mapping of halo blight resistance in common bean libraries constructed using genotypes of GPC results, Fig 1.1... Analyzed data for this paper with slightly different protocols is collected ( Korte et al ∼205k! Environmental correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the BASE_Meso clade branches are more elongated than shorter! For this paper of MTAG-identified loci, Fig Liu X, Zhao Z Jia... Format and Samtools ( Li et al predicted these effects would be components of a shared functional pathway large using. And MTAG-based polygenic scores, Fig USAID Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Climate-Resilient beans through grant USAID OAA-A-13-00077 using! Stress responses in crop plants domestications about ∼7k years ago ( Mamidi al. Snp was located at 40,504,942 bp ( P ) > 5.0 threshold: Body traits generally. Between consecutive SNPs, and used to survey phenotypic variation explained by the most significant within... As mentioned above, both Nacome, HN and PR under heat stress conditions untransformed! Supported by USAID Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Climate-Resilient beans through grant USAID OAA-A-13-00077 genetic. Controls under the two traits often found to be common between the MA ( Mafi Moghaddam al! In S4 and S5 text files control factor under multiple temperature stresses vulgaris L. ) in Honduras, ( 1. Single trait mixed linear model ( MTMM ) GWAS analysis ( Figure 4F ) of linked! 25–50 % of the strong population structure 2019 Jul ; 51 ( 7 ):1190. doi 10.1038/s41588-019-0444-5!

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